The design was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. [34][35], Katyusha rockets were reportedly used by both Gaddafi Loyalists and anti-Gaddafi forces during the Libyan Civil War. In 1941, a small number of BM-13 launchers were mounted on STZ-5 artillery tractors. [citation needed], German troops coined the nickname "Stalin's organ" (German: Stalinorgel), after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, comparing the visual resemblance of the launch array to a pipe organ, and the sound of the weapon's rocket motors, a distinctive howling sound which terrified the German troops,[7] adding a psychological warfare aspect to their use. boyevaya mashina), 'combat vehicle' for M-13 rockets). Katyusha rocket launchers, which were invented in Voronezh, were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons. Russian artillery is getting a makeover. The cross-country performance of the Studebaker US6 2½-ton 6x6 truck was so good that it became the GAU's standard mounting in 1943, designated BM-13N (normalizovanniy, 'standardized'), and more than 1,800 of this model were manufactured by the end of World War II. [3] On July 14, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was first used in battle at Rudnya in Smolensk Oblast of Russia, under the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a concentration of German troops with tanks, armored vehicles and trucks at the marketplace, causing massive German Army casualties and its retreat from the town in panic,[17] see also in articles by a Russian military historian Andrey Sapronov,[18][19] an eye witness of the maiden launches. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. [20], In June 1942 heavy Guards mortar battalions were formed around the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. Today, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted post-Soviet – in addition to non-Soviet – multiple rocket launchers, notably the common BM-21 Grad and its derivatives. The weapon is less accurate than conventional artillery guns, but is extremely effective in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. The use of medieval rocket artillery was picked up by the invading Mongols and spread to the Ottoman Turks who in turn used them on the European battlefield. Independent Guards mortar battalions were also formed, comprising 12 launchers in three batteries of four. As … About 95% of these were 122 mm (4.8 in) Syrian-manufactured M-21OF type artillery rockets which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a range of 20 km, perhaps up to 30 km (19 mi). [9] I. Gvay led a design team in Chelyabinsk, Russia, which built several prototype launchers firing the modified 132 mm M-132 rockets over the sides of ZiS-5 trucks. Some allege that the CIA bought Katyushas from the Egyptian military and supplied them to the Mujahideen (via Pakistan's ISI) during the Soviet Afghan war. Following the success, the Red Army organized new Guards mortar batteries for the support of infantry divisions. [4], Because they were marked with the letter K (for Voronezh Komintern Factory),[4][5] Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky's popular wartime song, "Katyusha", about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who has gone away on military service. [2], Initially, concerns for secrecy kept the military designation of the Katyushas from being known by the soldiers who operated them. These proved unstable, and V.N. The U.S. Army sneaked a pair of long-range rocket-launchers near Russia’s Black Sea outpost on Thursday, fired off a few rockets then hurried the launchers back to … Russia can project long-range firepower via weapons such as the BM-30 Smerch multiple rocket launcher, with a range of 60 miles, or the SS-26 Iskander ballistic missile with a … [3] By the end of 1942, 3,237 Katyusha launchers of all types had been built, and by the end of the war total production reached about 10,000.[10]. For 2020, Russia is ranked 2 of 138 out of the countries considered for the annual GFP review.It holds a PwrIndx* rating of 0.0681 (0.0000 considered 'perfect'). Existing Army tube artillery can generally fire at … While the U.S. Army remains fixed on 155 mm cannon artillery with a maximum range upward of 22 kilometers, the Russian army has begun reactivating its heavy artillery forces, beginning with its 2S7 Pion, mounting an impressive 203 mm round with a maximum range of 37.5 km. A battery's complement was standardized at four launchers. The 82 mm BM-8 was approved in August 1941, and deployed as the BM-8-36 on truck beds and BM-8-24 on T-40 and T-60 light tank chassis. To their credit, all have combat records. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps. Three batteries were combined into a division (company), and three divisions into a separate mine-firing regiment of rocket artillery. The M-8 and M-13 rocket could also be fitted with smoke warheads, although this was not common. Pages 116. 2, p. 66, chapter by field-marshal Andrey Eremenko, Andrey Sapronov «Россия» newspaper No. Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat. As their grip grew tighter, Russian and partisan forces entered and cleared terminals, hangers, and other facilities in which Ukrainian forces were located. The Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union,[1] were usually mounted on ordinary trucks. Number of launch rails/tubes is absent here. Its bulbous warhead required it to be fired from a grounded frame, called the M-30 (single frame, four round; later double frame, 8 round), instead of a launch rail mounted on a truck. Short names such as BM-8 or BM-13 were used too. Description. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired between 3,970 and 4,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-portable launchers. Starting in 1942, they were also mounted on various British, Canadian and U.S. Lend-Lease trucks, in which case they were sometimes referred to as BM-13S. Once isolated, Russian forces and partisans began a slow, concentric squeeze on the Ukrainians controlling the airport, much of which consisted of incessant artillery and rocket bombardment. Although Katyusha originally referred to the mobile launcher, today the rockets are often referred to as Katyushas. Israel captured BM-24 MRLs during the Six-Day War (1967), used them in two battalions during the Yom Kippur War (1973) and the 1982 Lebanon War, and later developed the MAR-240 launcher for the same rockets, based on a Sherman tank chassis. In 1943, Guards mortar brigades, and later divisions, were formed equipped with static launchers. Georgian government forces are reported to have used BM-21 Grad or similar rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war. Russia's Artillery Capabilities: On target! [25] Soviet BM-13s were known to have been imported to China before the Sino-Soviet split and were operational in the People's Liberation Army. The Russian defense establishment's perception of the place of artillery - in general, and rocket Artillery - in particular, has undergone a significant advancement over the past decade, placing these systems at a central place on the ground battlefield. BM-30 Smerch 9K58, Tornado-G, TOS1-A, BM-27 Uragan. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver explosives to a target area more quickly than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They remained under NKVD control until German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became common later in the war. [citation needed] Testing with various rockets was conducted through 1940, and the BM-13-16 with launch rails for sixteen rockets was authorized for production. (See link below for a summary of the Russian artillery units operating on the border of Ukraine or in its territory). They were effective in battle, but translated into much anti-Tutsi sentiment in the local media. The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher (Russian: Катю́ша, IPA: [kɐˈtʲuʂə] (listen)) is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. Manufacturer Lockheed Martin completed final test … In the video, Saharawi troops are seen loading a BM-21 “Grad” multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), a wheeled vehicle built by the Soviet Union that remains in use in dozens of militaries around the globe. 23 of June 21-27, 2001, Andrey Sapronov «Парламентская газета» No 80 of May 5, 2005, National Museum of the History of Ukraine in the Second World War, redeploy to a new location immediately after firing, Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute, Hezbollah fired between 3,970 and 4,228 rockets, Tales of 'Tank City'. One of the more notable BM-13 developments became the long range BM-13-DD. [6] Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha. In Iraq, according to Associated Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha-like rockets were fired at the Green Zone late March 2008. [21] In 1944, the BM-31 was used in motorized heavy Guards mortar battalions of 48 launchers. 3 Types of rocket artillery 16 3.1 Portable systems 16 3.2 Towed systems 18 3.3 Vehicle mounted systems 18 3.4 Artillery missiles / tactical missiles 19 3.5 Guidance systems 20 3.5.1 Inertial Navigations Systems (INS) 20 3.5.2 Global Positioning System (GPS) 20 4 Components of rocket artillery 21 4.1 Rail or tube systems 21 4.2 Aiming devices 22 [3] The name BM-13 was only allowed into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until after the war. Such names describe launchers only no matter what vehicle they are mounted on. Russia can project long-range firepower via weapons such as the BM-30 Smerch multiple rocket launcher, with a range of 60 miles, or the SS-26 Iskander ballistic missile with a … The 9K52 Luna-M (Russian: Луна; English: moon, NATO reporting name FROG-7) is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system. Find all the latest news on Russian rocket artillery, including everything about the Global Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Market system, and more. They were also built in Czechoslovakia,[24] the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran. Each truck had 14 to 48 launchers. Stepan Poltorak, Ukraine’s defense minister, alleged that Russia has sent 1,150 artillery pieces into Eastern Ukraine including 450 multiple-rocket launchers. The use of rockets as some form of artillery dates back to medieval China where devices such as fire arrows were used (albeit mostly as a psychological weapon). No casualties were reported. Backpack (portable variant, so called "mountain Katyusha"), This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 21:08. In the years following WWII, the BM-13 was replaced by the 140 mm BM-14 and the BM-31 was replaced by the 240 mm BM-24. In modern use, the rockets are often guided by an internal guiding system or GPS in order to maintain accuracy. "The planned rearmament of rocket artillery … Fire arrows were also used in multiple launch systems and transported via carts. [22] During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded several models of Katyusha-like MRL, notably the BM-21 Grad launchers somewhat inspired by the earlier weapon, and the larger BM-27 Uragan. , The PHL-03, for example, has been delivered to Pakistan, Belarus is touting as a homegrown innovation, ← The F-35 May Not Be So Special After All, The Syrian Civil War Did Wipe Out The Syrian Arab Army →. [20], By the end of 1942, 57 regiments were in service—together with the smaller independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-8 light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. But the artillery branch was not fond of the Katyusha, because it took up to 50 minutes to load and fire 24 rounds, while a conventional howitzer could fire 95 to 150 rounds in the same time. A list of some implementations of the Katyusha follows:[14][15][16], Rockets used in the above implementations were:[15]. They have also been used in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat. [33], It was reported that BM-21 Grad launchers were used against American forces during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It’s a combustible situation. A few were also tried on KV tank chassis as the KV-1K, but this was a needless waste of heavy armour. Each regiment comprised three battalions of three batteries, totalling 36 BM-13 or BM-8 launchers. Tanzanian forces called them Baba Mtakatifu (Kiswahili for "Holy Father") while the Ugandans called them Saba Saba.[26]. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are inexpensive, easy to produce, and usable on any chassis. Weapons of this type are known by the same name in Denmark (Danish: Stalinorgel), Finland (Finnish: Stalinin urut), France (French: orgue de Staline), Norway (Norwegian: Stalinorgel), the Netherlands and Belgium (Dutch: Stalinorgel), Hungary (Hungarian: Sztálinorgona), Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries (Spanish: Órganos de Stalin) as well as in Sweden (Swedish: Stalinorgel). The multiple rocket launchers were top secret in the beginning of World War II. The Russians field cannon and rocket artillery with significantly longer ranges than their U.S. counterparts. Only forty launchers were built before Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. Galkovskiy proposed mounting the launch rails longitudinally. [38], On January 4, 2020, four Katyusha rockets were fired in the Baghdad area. The Russian military continues to make strides towards modernization - and in-the-field experience in Syria has helped. A salvo of rockets could completely straddle a target at a range of 5,500 metres (3.4 mi). Russia's Tornado-S multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) will replace the Cold War-era Smerch and Uragan systems within the next seven years. These went on to form large hybrid batteries of mobile launching systems that included indigenous Soviet trucks and even artillery tractors. A special unit of the NKVD troops was raised to operate them. [36], In February 2013, the Defence Ministry of Yemen reported seizing an Iranian ship, and that the ship's cargo included (among its other weapons) Katyusha rockets. When first observed by the West in 1983, it received the code MRL … [citation needed]. Initial large-scale testing began by the end of 1938, where it failed to impress the Soviet artillery branch due to its many drawbacks. The rockets were employed by the Tanzania People's Defence Force in the Uganda-Tanzania War. Troops: Security Sources", "Creation and Development of Rocket Artillery in the First Phase of the War", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Katyusha_rocket_launcher&oldid=996153294, Multiple rocket launchers of the Soviet Union, Self-propelled artillery of the Soviet Union, World War II artillery of the Soviet Union, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles containing Finnish-language text, Articles containing Norwegian-language text, Articles containing Hungarian-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Improvised vehicle mount, towed trailer or sled, ZiS-6 truck, Studebaker US6 U3 truck, rail carriage, ZIS-6 truck, improvised vehicle mount, towed trailer or sled, M-x-y (names used for towed trailers and sledges). The development of the Katyusha began as early as 1938 itself, when the Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII) in Leningrad was authorized to develop an MLRS. Besides the TR-107 and TR-122 rocket launchers, with both derived from Chinese munition types, Turkey’s Roketsan boasts the T-300 that can bombard targets 100 km away. This mobility gave the Katyusha, and other self-propelled artillery, another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire. The 9M21 rockets are mounted on a wheeled 9P113 transporter erector launcher (TEL) based on the ZIL-135 8x8 army truck. Reloading was executed in 3–4 minutes, although the standard procedure was to switch to a new position some 10 km away due to the ease with which the battery could be identified by the enemy. Katyusha rocket launchers, which were invented in Voronezh, were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons. The weapon's disadvantage was the long time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire. They were called by code names such as Kostikov guns, after the head of the RNII, the Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute, and finally classed as Guards Mortars. With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited most of its military arsenal including its large complement of MRLs. The Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences is a non-profit scientific organization of the Russian Federation. Although this type of weapon has existed since the 15th century (Leonardo da Vinci having perfected a similar machine), the design of the Katyusha may have been influenced by Giuseppe Fieschi's Machine infernale - Fieschi was honored in a religious service at a Moscow church at the prompting of Soviet General Kotskov, the inventor of the Katyusha rocket launcher. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries were in service.[20]. [6], The heavy BM-31 launcher was also referred to as Andryusha (Андрюша, an affectionate diminutive of "Andrew").[8]. This has a very uniqu… The presence of a unit from the 439th Guards Rocket Artillery Brigade was first reported in September, 2014. You must be wondering about the name of the rocket launcher and why it was called Katyusha. They were then rectified, and in1940, the Katyusha was authorized to be produced in limited numbers. Typical set of vehicles for soviet missile systems is the following: Note: There was also an experimental KV-1K – Katyusha mounted on KV-1 tank which was not taken in service. All of them had the same name: BM-8-24. [3] In 1942, the team of scientists Leonid Shvarts, Moisei Komissarchik and engineer Yakov Shor received the Stalin prize for the development of the BM-8-48. Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional … By the end of 1941, there were eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, fielding a total of 554 launchers. The Academy was established on April 5, 1994 by a decree of the RF President "in order to revive the traditions of Russian … In 1944 it became the basis for the BM-31-12 truck-mounted launcher.[3]. Katyusha weapons of World War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. RARAN coordinates the activities of scientists who carry out complex research and development on the creation, operation and use of modern weapons, military technology and special equipment. The Katyusha was inexpensive and could be manufactured in light industrial installations which did not have the heavy equipment to build conventional artillery gun barrels. The Tornado is Russia's answer to the US Army’s High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS). [1], The first large-scale testing of the rocket launchers took place at the end of 1938, when 233 rounds of various types were used. On Nov. 19, Russia celebrated the Day of Missile Forces and Artillery, honoring one branch of its army.Today, the Grad, Uragan, Smerch, and Tornado multiple-launch rocket systems (MLRS) are their main attack weapons that ensure superiority on the battlefield. Do not miss the latest updates on Russian rocket artillery news. With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location immediately after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Russian rocket artillery.The author of the book is Mikhail Sonkin.The book was printed in 1949, in Moscow by the Military Publishing House of the USSR Armed Forces.The first edition of this book.Hardcover. [12][13], Based on the M-13, the M-30 rocket was developed in 1942. [37], On May 19, 2019, a Katyusha rocket was fired inside the Green Zone in Baghdad, Iraq, landing less than a mile from the US Embassy near the statue of the Unknown Soldier. The success and economy of multiple rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be developed. [11] After World War II, BM-13s were based on Soviet-built ZiS-151 trucks. Other launchers had a number of variants mounted on different vehicles too. MOSCOW (Sputnik) — Russian rocket artillery brigades will be rearmed from the Smerch systems to modernized Tornado-S multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS) by 2020, Russian Missile Troops and Artillery commander Gen. Mikhail Matveyevsky said Monday. Quick video on the Katyusha Rocket Launcher, one of the most iconic weapons of the Second World WarFOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES Rachel Bayvel Celebrates the Soviet Jews Who Produced Weapons for Allied Victory, Inzhenerno-tekhnicheskaya deyatel’nost’ yevreyev v SSSR, https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgxwKjnVGfhmvvsflvdjnpwWpwhQf?projector=1&messagePartId=0.1, "Revisiting the Tanzania-Uganda war that toppled Amin", "Hizballah's Rocket Campaign Against Northern Israel: A Preliminary Report", "Iranian made rocket strikes Ashkelon – Ashkelon", Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History, "The World: Yemen says seized Iranian ship had weapons", "Katyusha rocket crashes into Baghdad Green Zone; no casualties", "Multiple rockets fall in Baghdad, air base", "Rockets fall near U.S. Embassy, no casualties, police sources", "Two Rockets Fall Inside Iraqi Air Base Housing U.S. BM-31-12 is a vehicle which fires M-31 missiles and has 12 launch tubes. This year's May Day parade showcased the newest self-propelled guns in the Russian arsenal, the 2S35 Koalitsiya-SV. In June 1938, the Soviet Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute (RNII) in Moscow was authorized by the Main Artillery Directorate (GAU) to develop a multiple rocket launcher for the RS-132 aircraft rocket (RS for Reaktivnyy Snaryad, 'rocket-powered shell'). In particular BM-8-24 had a number of variants: vehicle mounted (ZiS-5 truck), tank mounted (T-40) and tractor mounted (STZ-3). The BM-30 Smerch, 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. [6], After their success in the first month of the war, mass production was ordered and the development of other models proceeded. Later these were also installed on GAZ-67 jeeps as the BM-8-8, and on the larger Studebaker trucks as the BM-8-48. In recent history, they have been used by Russian forces during the First and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-type multiple launch rocket systems, including bomblet submunitions, remotely deployed land mines, and chemical warheads. [32], Katyusha-like MRLs were also allegedly used by the Rwandan Patriotic Front during its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, through the 1994 genocide. Now with new evidence, the presence of a BM-30 `Smerch’ multiple rocket launcher system (MRLS) unit from the 439th Guards Rocket Artillery Brigade of the Southern Defense Command (SDC) … Katyusha batteries were often massed in very large numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. From Syria to the Crimea, one weapon has accompanied Russia’s ground forces both overseas and to Russia’s so-called “near abroad”: artillery … Proper Katyushas (BM-13s) also saw action in the Korean War, used by the Chinese People's Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. [39][40][41], BM-13 Katyusha multiple rocket launcher, based on a, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "История Великой Отечественной войны" в 6 томах (History of Great Patriotic War), vol. In August 1939, the result was the BM-13 (BM stands for боевая машина (translit. It fires unguided and spin-stabilized 9M21 rockets. Two other Katyusha rockets landed in the Balad air base, which houses U.S. troops, according to two security sources. The M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system was 80 cm (2 ft 7 in) long, 13.2 cm (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kg (93 lb). 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In 1942, and Iran with static launchers reporting name FROG-7 ) is a vehicle which fires M-31 missiles has. ) based on Soviet-built ZiS-151 trucks NKVD troops was raised to operate them only no matter vehicle., 'combat vehicle ' for M-13 rockets ) on lengths of railway track to serve in urban.. M-8 and M-13 rocket could also be fitted with smoke warheads, although this was not.... Fragile compared to artillery guns, but translated into much anti-Tutsi sentiment in the Baghdad area large to... March 2008, BM-27 Uragan beginning of World War II, BM-13s were based on the ZIL-135 8x8 Army.... Of a tank corps local media were then rectified, and remained classified until after War... Shortly, try restarting your device to the mobile launcher, light BM-8 and... Were installed on ZiS-6 6×4 trucks, as well as the KV-1K, but translated much... In multiple launch systems and transported via carts ] [ 35 ], Katyusha rockets lengths! 518 batteries were in service. [ 20 ] many drawbacks ( translit for the support of infantry.. A battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps January,! Developments became the long range BM-13-DD but are inexpensive, easy to produce, and more M-31! 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system ( MLRS ) will replace Cold.

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