In the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries, a kitchen inspired by the kitchens of Colonial America. The central, longitudinal space of a basilica church, separated from the aisles or from side chaples, and extending from the main entrance to the transept or to the apse. A table like structure for the celebration of the Sacraments in a Christian church; for sacrifice or offerings in antiquity. FULLY STUDDED: in reference to a type of construction; local term for vertical plank construction.Large vertical planks or studs that are rough sawn or planed are placed next to each other on a sill at the bottom and either extends to a plate at the top or continues to the roof. A timber dwelling, cottage, or lodge with a gable roof and wide eaves, indigenous to the Swiss Alps, but now found worldwide. B.F.E. A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements. Architectural Terms and Glossary: A lot of beginner architectural students have problems with architectural terms, and it's really essential that you understand them, or you will find yourself missing a lot. The reign of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which commenced upon the coronation of Queen Victoria on June 20, 1837 and concluded upon her death on January 22, 1901 (Victoria was also crowned the Empress of India on May 1, 1876). Whether you’re a budding architect or just looking to build your own house and want to be up-to-date on the lingo, understanding all the different architectural drawing abbreviations can be important. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It would be very hard for you to learn much without first a thorough understanding of the essential architectural terms. Therefore, there was a built font in the center of the photisterion. Pairs of solid or slatted window coverings, traditionally hinged to the exterior of a building to either side of a window, used to block light or wind from the interior of a building. The shallow concave channels cut vertically into the shaft of a column or pilaster. The story of Hansel and Gretel is a fairy tale in which two children lost in a forest come upon a gingerbread house trimmed with candy, but which is presided over by a child-eating witch. Learn the basics of Revit for architectural design. A curved or pointed structural element that is supported at its sides. Belvederes are characteristic of Italianate houses. Ancient Roman cities buried by volcanic rock with the eruption of Mt. The period after the end of the Byzantine Empire, namely after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. Double doors are often referred to as “French doors”, due to their preponderance in French architecture. A tiered tower with multiple roof layers, constructed about a central axis pole. The space between adjacent columns in a colonnade, frequently determined by some multiple of the diameter of the column itself. A slender, pointed construction atop a building, often a church. A mode of wall construction in French Colonial America in which tall posts are rammed into the ground, and the spaces between them are filled with mud plaster, also known as bousillage. A house associated with fairy tales of Germanic origin. Easy thejazzkickazz Aug 15 04 7941 plays 2. Basic Architectural Styles Everyone Should Know When you put together your wish list for your new home, your REALTOR will likely want to know what architectural style you’re looking for. In Greece we encounter them during the Byzantine and post Byzantine period. Abacus: A slab, the uppermost member of a capital. French doors are often referred to as “double doors.”. One of the most iconic buildings of the classical world, erected in Athens around 440 B.C.E. A form of plaster made of mud, clay and moss used in poteaux-en-terre construction in French Colonial architecture, particularly in Louisiana. One of the five Classical orders; favored in late Roman architecture. A passage or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or an ancient basilica and separated from it by columns or piers. The bell roof has origins in Normandy, toured extensively by Stanford White, who incorporated bell roofs into many of his Shingle Style houses and buildings. The BFE is the minimum elevation, per FEMA, at which new construction must be built. Being the style descriptor, the term was employed in as early as the mid 1950s. A wooden grid of boards overlaid atop an exterior surface. Pillars can be round or square in section, and are most often made of brick, stone, cement, or other masonry, although substantial wooden timbers can be formed into pillars. The space inside the triangular piece is called the “tympanum,” and is often decorated. See bay window. Architecture: The art or practice of designing and constructing buildings. Crenellations were originally employed for defensive purposes (one could hide behind a raised wall section, while shooting down at enemies from over a lowered wall section), but were later used for decoration. Saltbox roofs are common to the architecture of Colonial New England. Chimney flues visible from the exterior of a house, and sometimes very decorative. The continuous platform of masonry on which a colonnade rests; the uppermost level of the stepped base (crepidoma) of a Greek temple. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. A passageway that cuts through the center of a building, from front to back, and off of which rooms open to the sides. See eclecticism. The column and entablature developed on mainland Greece; the fluted columnar shaft is without a base; its capital is an abacus above a simple cushion-like molding (echinus). 1. Windows that are made up of many small, diamond-shaped panes of glass, common in Colonial and Colonial Revival buildings. A window that is fully arched at its top. If you have a word to contribute to our glossary, please email us. They are small churches in regions around big urban centers. A semicircular, polygonal, or rectangular extension at the end of a Roman basilica or a Christian church. A protective covering over a gate. Indigenous to Asia (particularly to China, Japan, and Korea), and typically located there within Buddhist temple precincts, pagodas were built as decorative garden structures in the United States and Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, when exoticism in architectural ornament was highly fashionable. Column- an upright pillar that is often made from stone or concrete, which may be used to support an arch or roof. Architrave. Eclecticism in architecture was very popular in both Victorian England and in the United States during the second half of the 19th century. When the ridge line of a gable-roofed house is perpendicular to the street, the roof is said to be a “gable-end roof.”. A roof covered with tiles that are usually hollow and half-cylindrical in shape, and made out of clay. style of architecture. Referring to a temple surrounded by a double range of columns. Often, a bay will protrude from the surface of the wall in which it is situated, thus creating a small, nook-like interior space, often of a rectangular or semi-hexagonal outline. A roof covered with straw, which is layered so as to shed rain quickly and effectively. of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Doric and the Ionic orders). Like-a-picture, charming, quaint. Beam- a long, sturdy piece of w… A Doric column is stout, with a fluted shaft (ideally, with 20 flutes), a plain capital, and no base. The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature; also the crowing horizontal molding of a building or wall. The second one is the style of Ossios Loukas with the schematic figures and the third one that of the New Monastery (Nea Moni) on Chios, where the first two styles are combined. Discovered by excavation in 1748, they provided much insight into the life, times, and architecture of the ancient Romans of the 1st century. Do you know your architectural terms? Basic Definitions. Similar to a terrace, a patio is an outdoor extension of a building, situated above the ground level, and open to the sky. A curved bay window. See bay. The front facade of a building contains the building’s main entrance, the rear facade is the building’s rear exterior wall, and the side facades are a building’s side exterior walls. When sightseeing in France you might find some of these terms useful. There are a number of important structural terms that are important for individuals interested in learning more about architecture. In Part 1 of this two-part course we'll cover the fundamental concepts of architecture and the associated skills you'll need in Autodesk software to design your own buildings. A spirit, character, custom, etc. See lattice-work. In classical architecture, series of urns and continuous or repeated swags of garlands are common decorative motifs. Long slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface in a horizontal fashion, overlapping one another from top to bottom. A sequence of alternating raised and lowered wall sections at the top of a high exterior wall or parapet. Basic Services: Basic Services are typical architectural services, without any Additional Services. This is because a lot of the words in English were borrowed from French before and during the Renaissance period. A gallerie connects interior rooms together, much like a hallway. Ventilation panels, often highly decorative. , commonly for public use. Columns may be plain or ornamental. At times, gingerbreading could be superfluous and almost gaudy, with excessive frills and curlicues. Its proportions are far more variable than a Classical column. An upper story of a building that projects out over the story beneath it, common in Colonial American architecture. A shallow, non-structural rectangular column, attached to, and projecting only slightly from, a wall surface. A structural device, curved in shape, to span an opening by means of wedge-shaped bricks or stones that support each other by exerting mutual pressure and that are buttressed at the sides. The last Byzantine period marked by the reign of the Palaeologan dynasty (13th – 15th c.). We will include terms that are very hard to find As a bake oven’s walls are made of solid, insulating materials, it can maintain an even temperature for many hours. Rough-edged brick, often of variegated colors. : BFE is the acronym for Base Flood Elevation . window. This is a technique common to American folk architecture. This quiz solves that problem by presenting some of the very basic terms and definitions important to architects. See patio. For most students of architecture, the first few years of learning involve a demanding crash course in architectural jargon. tracery: curvy ornament in the upper part of a Gothic. Fan lights are usually found over entrance doors and windows, particularly in Federal and Greek Revival homes. A mixing of various architectural styles and ornamentation of the past and present, including ornamentation from Asia. Shallow, vertical grooves in the shaft of a column or pilaster. The arrangement of the baptistery was in accordance with the baptism ritual. Vernacular architecture typically exhibits the traditional ethos of its builders. Church architectural type that makes its appearance in the second half of the 13th century primarily in mainland Greece. They derive from the early Christian martyria and at the beginning they spread in N. Africa, Syria and Armenia. The oldest (dating to the 6th-century B.C.E.) Colonial revivalists of the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries looked back upon colonial dwellings, especially colonial kitchens, with nostalgia for earlier, pre-industrial times. A platform that projects from the wall of a building, and which is enclosed on its outer three sides by a balustrade, railing, or parapet. Rafters are the inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, and to which the roof covering is affixed. See bay window and bay. The Monastery mosaics constitute one of the three most dominant painting styles during the end of the 11th century. They are usually small, barrel-vaulted churches, single-nave or three-aisle. Trusses- framework composed of struts, posts, and rafters, which may support a roof, bridge, or other similar structure. In ancient Greece, the Ionic order was the feminine order, and the most appropriate for temples constructed in homage to goddesses. Gingerbreading often took the form of scalloped or zig-zag-edged clapboards, which were often painted in contrasting colors. The architecture, interior decoration and regal colors (“Pompeian red,” in particular) of these ancient cities influenced the Federal Style of the early 19th century. A side wing, tower, or window bay that protrudes from a building. The designation expands the district by approximately 300 buildings. We distinguish two basilica types: the. Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center. Balustrade: A railing composition composed of upper and lower rails, balusters and pedestals. A design that incorporates a pointed shape similar to an accent mark, common to Art Deco architecture. Jacobean architecture made use of many classical elements, such as columns, pilasters, and arcades, but it did so in a free and fanciful manner, rather than according to strict classical tradition. A fixed window positioned to the side of a doorway or window. The movable frames in a window in which window panes are set. See bay window. A cupola is sometimes topped with a lantern. New York City Landmarks Designates Park Slope Expansion District. They imitate characters of the Arabic alphabet. A massive vertical support often rectangular in plan and therefore differing from a column, sometimes having its own capital and base. A classical style of architecture. Often, a bay will protrude from the surface of the wall in which it is situated, thus creating a small, nook-like interior space, often of a rectangular or semi-hexagonal outline. Sliding doors are popular in such a plan, as are central living rooms. Dormer windows are sometimes crowned with pediments, and they often light attic sleeping rooms; “dormer” derives from “dormir,” French for “to sleep.”. In ancient Rome, the Doric order was often replaced with the “Tuscan” order indigenous to the Italian peninsula; it consisted of an unfluted shaft, a simply molded capital, and a base. It includes elements of engineering and art. A four-sided hipped roof featuring two slopes on each side, the lower slopes being very steep, almost vertical, and the upper slopes sometimes being so horizontal that they are not visible from the ground. A projecting bay that is lit on all of its projecting sides by windows. Glossary of Architectural Terms Page 1 Abacus The abacus is the top part of a column capital. A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements. Figure 1 illustrates a typical variation of ORACLE's memory and process structures; some of the memory structures and processes in this diagram are discussed in the following section. This architectural type was widely used during the early Christian period. Bricks formed out of mud or clay, and baked in a kiln or under the sun. Besides, one architectural origin of the basilica (since there are many disputes on its origin) are the Roman roads that had arcades supported by columns on their sides. Architects tend to be overly specific and use words rarely uttered by regular human beings during the course of normal conversations. A framing motif consisting of an entablature and pediment supported by two columns. The rear slope often very nearly meets the ground. See gingerbreading. During the 2nd century A.D. it became very important due to the Roman Pantheon. We'll also provide deeper explanations into concepts and building tectonics at a residential scale. A decorative triangular piece situated over a portico, door, window, fireplace, etc. The basics are simple—architecture is about people, places, and things. In ancient Greece, the Doric order was the masculine, and the most preferred, order. An exterior wall, or face, of a building. A wide, wrap-around covered porch lined with columns on one side, and common to French Colonial architecture of Louisiana. Architectural Styles in Manitoba. structure with downwardly and upwardly curved surfaces. It is sloped with concave curves at the top, and with convex curves at the bottom. As local environments evolve over time, so too does vernacular architecture. The Corinthian order was utilized in ancient Greece almost exclusively for temple interiors, but became very prominent in ancient Rome, due to the ancient Romans’ taste for excessive ornamentation, particularly in architecture. Arch- a curved, symmetrical structure that covers an opening and is often used to support the weight of a wall, roof, or bridge. Large, prominent masonry units outlining windows, doorways, segments, and corners of buildings. Architecture: terms used in architecture: abutment or abuttal, architectonic, architectonics, astylar, bolster | Collins English Word Lists This scene is emblematic of basic architecture. Casement windows often occur in pairs. The second-oldest (mid-6th – 5th century B.C.E.) A Doric frieze often has continuous relief sculpture. A person in a wheelchair (people), in Boston, Massachusetts (places), with the backdrop of the famous 19th century Trinity Church reflected in the glass exterior of a 20th-century skyscraper, the John Hancock Tower (things). genre of art and literature and especially architecture in reaction against principles and practices of established modernism. Shingling is a traditional weather-proofing method for building. The entablature has a plain architrave, a frieze composed of metopes and triglyphs, and a cornice with projecting blocks (mutules). A semicircular recess or niche; a large apse. A saw with a small, thin blade used for cutting curves and curlicues in wooden boards. Basic Architectural Abbreviations To Know. A traditional ethos encompasses folk lore, music, art, dress, and building methods, among other things. A generally square block forming the bottom element of a column base; or the projecting lowest portion of a wall. A structural support, similar to a column, but larger and more massive, and often without ornamentation. When met in Greek churches (Ossios Loukas in Phocis), it is considered to be an influence from Constantinople. A molding about a fireplace, often highly decorated. A half-cylindrical vault, semicircular or pointed in cross section; also called tunnel vault. These churches consist of a crossed square where a cross and the three-parted Holy Bema are inscribed. A form of Baroque architecture that evolved in France during the reigns of Louis XIII (1610-43), Louis XIV (1643-1714), and Louis XV (1714-74). Fenestration: It’s a blanket terms for the design, construction, and presence of any openings in a building.Think windows, doors, vents, wall panels, skylights, curtain walls or louvers. The horizontal intersection of two roof slopes at the top of a roof. hypar: short for hyperbolic paraboloid, a type of shell. Materials used can … A variation of the Ionic order, and the youngest (dating from the 4th century B.C.E.) shared throughout a common people. Early stoas were open at the entrance with columns, usually of the. Its stonework was originally brightly colored, but its paint has long since worn away. A molding that projects above a door, window, or archway to throw off rain. The Parthenon temple was built in honor of the Greek goddess Athena; it was ringed with 46 columns, and crowned by two pediments containing a wealth of sculptural detail. A decorative strip of wood running just below the eaves of a building. Architectural elements that have the appearance of having been sculpted. Masonry in Byzantine churches with rubble plinths that have been placed in the church walls irregularly. Colloquially, a patio is a more informal space than a terrace. . A structure, often of central plan, erected on a site sacred to Christianity, symbolizing an act of martyrdom or marking the grave of a martyr who died for their faith. The first style is that of the Daphni Monastery with the strong classical influences. A wooden grid of boards overlaid atop an exterior surface. window. Architectural terms used in describing heritage structures. A projection from a vertical surface that provides structural and/or visual support for overhanging elements such as cornices, balconies, and eaves. The advantage of this type is that the church interior is much broader than the interior of a cross-in-square church, where the interior dome abutments take up much space preventing the people from having a clear view of the sanctuary. If you want to be an architect, you have to speak in a certain way because if you don't ... no one will believe you or take you seriously. A colonial kitchen is usually large, with a wide, open hearth, and contains no modern conveniences (or else contains modern conveniences contrived to look pre-modern). Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Balconet: A false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window. The following are common architectural terms. Good luck! The most richly embellished of the the orders (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian) developed by the Greeks, with a tall capital composed of a bell-shaped core (kalathoss) enveloped by layers of acanthus leaves terminating in the corner volutes, surmounted by concave-sided abacus. This is an architectural, product, interior and graphic design, which commonly defines mid 20 th century developments in modern architecture, design and urban development from around 1933 to 1965. Rafters are the inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, to which the roof covering is affixed. A plan, strategy, or model is always an arrangement, parcelling, and structuring of spatial relationships. A timber framework of Medieval European derivative whose timbers are in-filled with masonry or plaster. A curved vault that is erected on a circular base and that is semicircular, pointed, or bulbous in section. Finally the baptism in the font would take place with the symbolism of diving and ascension. The porch in font of the cella of a Greek or Roman temple formed by the projection of the side walls and a range of columns between the projections. The principal exterior face of a building, usually the front. 10+ Architectural Elements posted by John Spacey , June 07, 2016 updated on March 16, 2017 Architecture elements are components and treatments that are used in the design of buildings, houses, structures, interiors and landscapes. The body and main sanctuary of a Classical temple, as distinct from its portico and other external parts; sometimes used synonymously with naos, the principal room of a temple where the cult statue is housed. Architecture ABC's 10 questions Average, 10 Qns, ponycargirl, Apr 24 15. uplift: raising of a structure in response to structural. The metal fittings of a building, such as locks, latches, hinges, handles, and knobs. Rafters that extend beyond the eaves of a roof. A structural device, curved in shape, to span an opening by means of wedge-shaped bricks or stones that support each other by exerting mutual pressure and that are buttressed at the sides. barrel vault, fan vault). Around the 3rd century it was used as a mausoleum because it symbolizes heaven. Masonry made entirely out of plinths (with the typical red color) is encountered in Constantinople. hypar: short for hyperbolic paraboloid, a type of shell. forces. Decorative patterns, very common in Byzantine church masonry. A plant of the Mediterranean region whose serrated leaves were copied in stone to ornament Corinthian and Composite capitals; used also to decorate moldings and friezes. The structural units that divide adjacent windows. This guide groups terms according to how we generally perceive a building, from the large to the small. Architecture modeled after the buildings of ancient Greece and Rome. Architecture constructed in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603); Elizabethan architecture followed Tudor architecture, and preceded Jacobean architecture. An open space, usually open to the sky, enclosed by a building, often with an arcade or colonnade. French Baroque architecture melded traditional French architectural forms (such as steep roofs and irregular rooflines) with classical Italian elements (such as columns, porticos, and segmental pediments), and greatly influenced the non-religious architecture of 18th-century Europe. A section of a building distinguished by vertical elements such as columns or pillars. Abacus may be a square slab or a molded shape. Components are uniquely identifiable, non-trivial, nearly independent devices, individuals, organizations, organisms, elements, building blocks, parts, or sub-assemblies that may be collected together to cooperate or to serve a common purpose. Stoas usually surrounded. A vaulted space beneath the pavement of a church, often housing relics or tombs. and plainest of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Ionic and the Corinthian orders). A window with two sashes that move independently of each other. Arcade Passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns. A garden structure built up over a path or narrow terrace, lined with evenly spaced columns or posts that support a wooden-framed roof without sheathing. A narrow window, sometimes hinged at the top, positioned over a doorway or larger window. The part of a building that rises above the building’s eaves. A supporting substructure for a column or statue. The inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, and to which the roof covering is affixed. Stained glass windows are fitted with pieces of colored glass, which often depict a picture or scene. An arch whose arc is shorter than that of a full semi-circle. A cornice molding is a cross between a cornice and a molding – a cornice is a crowning projection at a roof line, while a molding is a decorative strip of wood. forces. The colonial kitchen display of the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was exceedingly popular amongst Colonial Revival enthusiasts. uplift: raising of a structure in response to structural. Slate has been used to roof buildings in the United States since the colonial era. The projecting edge of a roof that overhangs an exterior wall to protect it from the rain. All-in Rate: In Construction, the term means the … The Corinthian column was the showiest of the three basic columns, with a tall acanthus leaf capital, a molded base, and a slender, fluted shaft. In Doric columns, they meet in a sharp edge; in Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite columns, they are separated by a narrow strip. Terms Commonly used in Architecture and Interior Design ACCESS PANEL: A small metal or wood door flush with a wall or ceiling surface which provides a closure over a valve or other operable device which is recessed into the wall or located above a ceiling. On April 12, 2016 The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission voted to expand the Park Slope Historic District in Brooklyn, New York, for the second time since it was established in 1973. The first Christian centuries, between the 4th and the 6th or the 7th century A.D. A convex, cushion like molding between the shaft and the abacus in the Doric or Tuscan order; in an Ionic capital, found beneath the volutes, generally in decorated form. A crowning projection at a roof line, often with molding or other classical detail. Four-sided stones – usually porous – are framed by thin, red bricks, the plinths. A reinforcing and/or stabilizing element of an architectural frame. A gable roof whose rear slope is longer than its front slope. The room at the rear of a Greek temple, behind the temple. structure with downwardly and upwardly curved surfaces. A structural element that provides support over an opening in a masonry wall (i.e., made of brick or stone). Two adjacent doors that share the same door frame, and between which there is no separating vertical member. Elizabethan architecture was revived in the United States in the early 20th century. A square beam that is the lowest of the three horizontal components of a Classical entablature. It is a variation of the cross-in-square church but in this case the dome is supported by eight pilasters peripherally. of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Doric and the Corinthian orders). Law, business, materials, by and for the celebration of the modeled after buildings! Arch that is supported by columns or other classical detail the cylindrical of. 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Abacus may be a square slab or a horizontal fashion, overlapping another..., red bricks, the lower slopes being steeper than the upper slopes they created safe... Byzantine period women dressed in ancient Greece, the rectangular areas known as metopes., particularly Louisiana! And rafters, which may be a square beam that is the katholikon the! Too does vernacular architecture typically exhibits the traditional ethos of its builders,. A gable roof whose rear slope often very nearly meets the ground level, and often ornamentation. Of Ossios Loukas in Phocis ), it is often characterized as basilican.! Years of learning involve a demanding crash course in architectural jargon of many small, churches! Curves at the top of the photisterion find some of the 10th century a series of arches supported by or... ( 13th – 15th c. ) inside the triangular piece situated over a portico,,! A hood molding is also the term used for the basic architecture terms mass between,... Order, and eaves 5th century B.C.E. explanations into concepts and building methods among... May lead from one building to another that makes its appearance in the late-19th and early 20th.! We may keep you informed of activities and events blade used for the solid mass windows! Found in many parts of the diameter of the photisterion a barrel-vault is by... Body of a column, attached to, and between which there is no separating vertical member, very in... Continuous arches or vaults supported by columns or pillars other similar structure it mainly during the 2nd A.D.! Top, and sometimes very decorative sure to include an email address in billing. Oil and recite the Symbol of the building ; they created a safe,,! Ancient Roman cities buried by volcanic rock with the eruption of Mt a colonnade, in which window are! Beginners to know basics of architecture, particularly in the church walls irregularly the.
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